Faculty at our nation’s colleges and schools of pharmacy engage in a wide-range of scholarly activity.
Faculty create new knowledge across the bio-medical research continuum from the discovery of new molecular entities to helping healthcare professionals provide high quality care. The outcomes of this research create new cures for disease, better management of chronic illness, and improvements in both patient and economic outcomes.
Faculty create new knowledge that improves the quality of health care services that are provided to patients and populations. This knowledge allows for the development of quality measures that can guide provider performance and payment strategies for both federal and private health plans. Pharmacy faculty contributions to health care improvements are frequently undertaken through methodologies compatible with comparative effectiveness research.
The American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education (AJPE) is the official publication of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP). Its purpose is to "document and advance pharmaceutical education in the United States and Internationally.” The articles in the journal reflect the commitment of pharmacy faculty to improving the quality of pharmacy education to best meet the needs of students, patients and the public.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture includes the Office of Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Services.
The Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Services (CSREES) is authorized under 7 USC 3101 et seq.
Faculty at colleges and schools of pharmacy located at land-grant colleges and universities build relationships with USDA Extension faculty that support intracollegiate research projects.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) includes several public health agencies that offer grant support. These include the:
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Administration on Aging (AoA)
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is authorized under 42 USC 299.
According to the authorizing legislation:
“The purpose of the Agency is to enhance the quality, appropriateness, and effectiveness of health services, and access to such services, through the establishment of a broad base of scientific research and through the promotion of improvements in clinical and health system practices, including the prevention of diseases and other health conditions. The Agency shall promote health care quality improvement by conducting and supporting—
(1) research that develops and presents scientific evidence regarding all aspects of health care, including—
(A) the development and assessment of methods for enhancing patient participation in their own care and for facilitating shared patient-physician decision-making;
(B) the outcomes, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of health care practices, including preventive measures and long-term care;
(C) existing and innovative technologies;
(D) the costs and utilization of, and access to health care;
(E) the ways in which health care services are organized, delivered, and financed and the interaction and impact of these factors on the quality of patient care;
(F) methods for measuring quality and strategies for improving quality; and
(G) ways in which patients, consumers, purchasers, and practitioners acquire new information about best practices and health benefits, the determinants and impact of their use of this information;
(2) the synthesis and dissemination of available scientific evidence for use by patients, consumers, practitioners, providers, purchasers, policy makers, and educators; and
(3) initiatives to advance private and public efforts to improve health care quality.”
Pharmacy faculty are actively engaged across the AHRQ research portfolio and regularly make contributions that help AHRQ meets its legislative mandate to improve the quality of healthcare. Faculty at AACP member institutions are primary investigators in two of AHRQ’s prominent research programs: the Centers for Education and Research on Therapeutics (CERTs) and the Developing Evidence to Inform Decisions about Effectiveness (DeCIDE) network.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Many of the duties of the CDC are authorized under 42 USC 247 et seq. Pharmacy faculty are actively engaged in many of the authorized responsibilities of the CDC including those related to improving the infrastructure of state and local public health agencies, development, implementation and evaluation of clinical prevention and population health programs, and emergency preparedness. A significant component of a pharmacists education is related to public health concepts making them a competent public health professional.
The activities of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are authorized under 21 USC 301 et seq. as well as some activities authorized under the Public Health Service Act 42 USC 201 et seq. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is considered a federal public health agency. It is a hybrid agency in that its program oversight comes through the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and annual appropriations come through the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) was created by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in 1982, with a mission of upgrading healthcare services and improving accessibility for people who are uninsured, isolated or medically vulnerable.
The strategic goals of HRSA are:
Colleges and schools of pharmacy participate in and are supported through grant funding by a number of HRSA programs. The current program of greatest participation and impact is the Patient Safety and Clinical Pharmacist Services Collaborative within the Office of Pharmacy Affairs. New knowledge is being created as to how best create sustainable patient-centered healthcare teams to improve the care of disadvantaged populations including those served in community health centers.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) are authorized under 42 USC Section 281. Pharmacy faculty develop new knowledge through grant support from nearly every institute. The new knowledge spans the research continuum from bench science that leads to new-molecular discovery to determining how to maximize the translation of biomedical research benefits to the patient through the provider commonly referred to translational research. Several colleges and schools of pharmacy are the primary sites for the extensive NIH initiative, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is authorized under 42 USC 1861 et seq. NSF grants include the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR). "The program promotes the development of the states' science and technology (S&T) resources through partnerships involving a state's universities, industry, and government, and the Federal research and development (R&D) enterprise." A priority for NSF is the creation of new knowledge through interprofessional, collaborative research.
The Veterans Administration (VA) research programs are authorized under 38 USC 7303. The primary focus of VA research funding is improvement of medical care and prosthetics.
There are two primary functions of the U.S Congress in connection to federal public health agencies: program authorization and appropriation. These are two separate and distinct activities. Authorization is the legislative establishment (authorization) and continuation (reauthorization) of a particular program. All federal agencies and many of the programs administered by that agency receive an annual funding amount (appropriation) to implement the intent of Congress expressed in the authorization or reauthorization law. The U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate both have specific committees that deal with authorization and appropriations.
The Congressional committees responsible for the authorization and reauthorization of federal public health agencies and the research programs they administer are overseen by:
House of Representatives:
The Congressional committees responsible for the authorization and reauthorization of the U.S. Department of Education and the research programs it administers:
The Congressional committees responsible for the appropriation of annual funding of federal public health agencies, the research programs they administer, the U.S. Department of Health and the research programs it administers:
House of Representatives:
The Congressional committees responsible for the authorization and reauthorization of the National Science Foundation and the programs it administers:
The Congressional committees responsible for the appropriation of annual funding for the National Science Foundation are:
The Congressional committees responsible for the appropriation of annual funding for the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and the research programs it administers are:
Our members’ and students’ active engagement in issues related to strengthening the broad research portfolio to which pharmacy faculty contribute provide the rationale and the evidence-base for AACP research policy and advocacy agendas. To make a more impactful contribution to public policy discussions related to research issues AACP works collaboratively with other organizations on specific areas related to research funding presented above.
The Coalition for Health Funding (CHF) is a broad-based coalition representing a wide range of organizations. CHF is highly regarded on Capitol Hill and educates congressional members and their staff about the connection between a strong, well funded, federal public health agency research agenda and improvements to health and economic outcomes of our nation. The Coalition for Health Funding is a nonprofit alliance of national health organizations that works in a nonpartisan fashion to ensure that health discretionary spending remains highly visible as Congress and the Administration set federal budget priorities.
The AdHoc Group for Medical Research advocates for sustained appropriations for NIH. The AdHoc Group establishes an annual funding recommendation and advocacy strategy by working with its member organizations and NIH staff.
The CDC Coalition advocates for funding for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention a primary federal resource for prevention and wellness grant funding. The CDC Coalition establishes an annual funding recommendation and advocacy strategy by working with its member organizations and CDC staff.
The Friends of AHRQ advocate for funding for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The Friends of AHRQ establishes an annual funding recommendation and advocacy strategy by working with its member organizations and AHRQ staff.
The Friends of HRSA advocate for funding for the Health Resources and Services Administration including the Title VII health professions education programs. The Friends of HRSA establishes an annual funding recommendation and advocacy strategy by working with its member organizations and HRSA staff.
The Friends of the NCHS advocate for funding for the National Center for Health Statistics an important source of health survey data for faculty and policy makers.
The Friends of Indian Health advocate for funding for the Indian Health Service ensuring that Native Americans and Alaskan Natives, who suffer from some of our nation’s worst health disparities, have access to high quality health services.
Friends of VA Medical Care and Health Research (FOVA) is a diverse coalition of more than 80 national academic, medical and scientific societies, voluntary health and patient advocacy associations and industry that advocate appropriate funding for the health programs that serve the nations veterans. Among its many activities, FOVA members regularly brief members of Congress on the funding needs of health care and research at the Department of Veterans (VA), raise awareness of VAs medical care and research programs, and host special events that highlight VA research successes.
Federal public health research grant opportunities can be tracked by subscribing to www.grants.gov.
Legislative authority for federal agencies and the programs they administer are available by searching the United States Code. The U.S. Code is available through many web sites, but an easy to use resource if maintained by the Cornell Law School at http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode.
To view current law that may amend existing authorities presented in the U.S. Code go to the web pages maintained by the Library of Congress and commonly referred to as Thomas. http://thomas.loc.gov/
The National Institutes of Health maintains a searchable database, the NIH RePORTER, for federal awards to researchers. The database includes funding awards from most of the federal public health agencies including NIH, CDC, HRSA, FDA, SAMHSA, and the VA.
AACP member institutions and their faculty are actively engaged in a wide-range of federally supported bio-medical, health services and education scholarship. Each edition of Academic Pharmacy Now includes a school news section that lists the federal grants awarded to faculty at individual colleges and schools of pharmacy.
AACP has developed a searchable database of NIH and AHRQ grants awarded to faculty at member colleges and schools of pharmacy. This database provides quick access to grant information for a particular faculty member, institution, or federal agency.
AACP annually collects NIH funding awards from our member institutions.