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Dean and Professor
California Northstate University College of Pharmacy
Will Ofstad, PharmD, Assistant Professor, Clinical & Administrative Sciences, and Curriculum Committee Chair
Note-Worthy Practice – Standard 10 – California Northstate
California Northstate University College of Pharmacy (CNUCOP) initiated an interprofessional education program with the California State University Sacramento School of Nursing (CSUS SON) that employs multiple opportunities for collaboration, integration, and synergy. Through this partnership a novel model was developed to integrate team-based learning (TBL) and high-fidelity simulation in the delivery of interprofessional education (IPE). This partnership began with faculty and students from both institutions piloting a series of IPE case scenarios, with activities on both campuses. Faculty from both programs collaborated to develop learning modules that employ readiness assurance, high-fidelity simulation, facilitated debriefing, and team discussion. Learning outcomes focused on recommendations from the Interprofessional Education Collaborative. As such, students applied knowledge and judgment in care planning, medication knowledge, patient presentation, therapeutics, interpersonal communication, and ethical cognition. These experiences allowed the students to develop a greater understanding and empathy for one another’s roles and for their exclusive knowledge base. A post-event survey captured data on the utility of the event, with clear evidence that students from both programs learned from each other. Salient student comments included: “[In] school you sometimes get so narrowed in on your own responsibilities and duties you forget that there is a whole other world of team members within healthcare.” “It was valuable to critique each other and watch other teams perform.” “Teams that do not communicate effectively significantly increase their risk of committing errors.” As an example of a delivered module, second-year pharmacy students and first-year nursing students attended a half-day session at CNUCOP facilitated by faculty from both institutions. This day centered on patient safety and ethical responsibilities following errors. Interprofessional teams of 5-6 were assembled randomly and assigned throughout the IPE series. The format followed that of CNUCOP’s TBL curriculum in that students engaged in an individual readiness assignment upon arrival followed by a series of applications, intra-team discussion, and faculty-facilitated classroom discussion. Faculty at both institutions are learning from one another. While CSUS SON education delivery involves active learning, they are incorporating more concepts from TBL into their routine delivery, especially when working concomitantly with CNUCOP. As such, CSUS SON is benefitting from participation in and adjustments in their curriculum from exposure to TBL, while CNUCOP benefits from simulation training and utilization of the CSUS SON 27,000 square-foot high-fidelity simulation facility. Since that time, CNUCOP and CSUS SON students have collaborated on a number of health fairs, sharing booths and health interventions on various activities, ranging from blood pressure screening to immunizations. Faculty at both institutions are beginning to explore areas of mutual interest, primarily in the scholarship of teaching. While this endeavor had been in the works for some time, it was formally initiated in 2012 when CNUCOP held its annual curricular retreat and invited faculty from CSUS SON and from CNU’s nascent College of Medicine. Discussions from this retreat paved the way for the aforementioned pilots. Since that time, faculty at both institutions participate in certification training in high-fidelity simulation and facilitated debriefing through the California Simulation Alliance.
Length of use:
No computer hardware/software. As described, use is made of the California State University Sacramento high-fidelity simulation facility.
1. Interprofessional Education Collaborative Expert Panel: Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice: Report of an Expert Panel, 2011. Washington, DC, Interprofessional Education Collaborative. (Attached) 2. Center for Advancement of Interprofessional Education. The Definition and Principles of Interprofessional Education. Available at: www.caipe.org.uk. Accessed June 18, 2013. 3. Gaba D. The future vision of simulation in health care. Qual Saf Health Care. 2004;13(Suppl 1):i2-i10. 4. World Health Organization. Framework for Action on Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice. Geneva, WHO, 2010. Available at: www.who.int/hrh/resources/framework_action/en. Accessed June 19, 2013. 5. Michaelsen LK, Parmelee DX, McMahon KK, Levine RE. Team-Based Learning for Health Professions Education. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing; 2008. 6. Sibley J, Spiridonoff S. Introduction to Team-Based Learning Handout. Team-Based Learning Collaborative. Available at: www.teambasedlearning.org/starting. Accessed June 2, 2013. Figure 2 reproduced with permission. 7. Ofstad W, Brunner L. Team-based learning in pharmacy education. Am J Pharm Educ. 2013; 77(4):Article 70. 8. Jeffries P, Rizzolo M. Appendix A: Final report on the NLN/Laerdal simulation study. In: Simulation in Nursing Education. Jeffries P, ed. New York: National League for Nursing. 2007. 9. Reeves S. Why IPE now and what have we learned? In: Conference on Interprofessional Education. Alexandria, Virginia, April 1-3, 2012. 10. Botwinick L, Bisognano M, Haraden C. Leadership Guide to Patient Safety. Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) Innovation Series white paper. Joint Commission for Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, Cambridge, MA: Institute for Healthcare Improvement; 2006. Available at: www.ihi.org/ihi. Accessed June 19, 2013. 11. Zimont J, Kappus L, Sudkoff S. The 3D model of debriefing: defusing, discovery, and deepening. Semin Perinatol. 2011;35(2):52-58. 12. Wilhaus J, Palaganas J, Manos J, et al. Interprofessional Education and Healthcare Simulation. 2012. SSH & NLN Symposium. Available at: www.ssih.org/uploads/static_pages/ipe-final_compressed.pdf. Accessed June 19, 2013. 13. Page RL, Hume AL, Trujillo JM, et al. Interprofessional education: principles and application. A framework for clinical pharmacy. Pharmacotherapy. 2009:29(7):879.
Ofstad W, Brady D, Schumann H, Munteanu J, Allen PA, Keel B, Brunner LJ. Integrating Team-Based Learning and High-Fidelity Simulation for Interprofessional Education. American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Conference, July 15, 2013.
IPE poster abstract with Sac State.pdf
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